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A Stud Welding Terminology Refresher

Today’s constantly evolving industrial standards and materials can be inadvertently confused, leading to waste or injury. This brief review of stud welding terminology should keep your stud welding chops honed:

Welding methods

Arc Welding process

Arc Welding

Different methods target distinct materials and purposes to provide different results:

Drawn Arc welds create the strongest bond between stud and base. The stud is embedded with flux to keep the weld zone clean as the gun plunges it into the base. A ceramic ferrule contains the molten metal and prevents it from splashing.

Gas Arc welds do not use flux. Gas, not a ferrule, is used to shield the effects of the molten metal fusion. Gas arc welding eases automation but reduces control over the puddle and the depth of the plunge.

Short Arc
Short arc welds use no flux or ferrule (like gas arc). High currents and short weld times increase the speed at which these welds are accomplished but can sometimes reduce their strength.  Without shielding porosity can be introduced. Short arc applications should be carefully chosen

Capacitor Discharge (CD) Welding

CD welds are used for smaller fasteners; it speeds the process and creates a very clean final product.

Contact CD
In this style of CD welding, the stud is placed against the workpiece, and its tip vaporizes as the current is discharged. An arc forms between stud and workpiece, melting the metal, before the stud is plunged.

Gap CD
In this CD welding process, the stud is lifted, creating a gap, and then released at the same time the voltage is applied to the across the workpiece. Because the stud is accelerating across the gap this processes reduce weld times. Shorter weld times lends itself to aluminum and thin sheet gauges.

Operator errors can create problems:
– Excess pressure can crush stud nibs;
– Coiled cables can inhibit electricity flow;
– Improperly set power controls reduce bond security.

Certifications
In the U.S., welders receive certifications from the American Welding Society; in Canada, the service is provided by the Canadian Welding Bureau.

Certified welders (CW) demonstrate skill and ability to create sound, secure welds using a variety of processes and materials in a variety of designs and positions. Beyond general welding skills, certified welders can obtain qualifications for specific industries, including sheet metals and petroleum.

Certified Welding Supervisors (CWS) offer resource and employee oversight services. Longtime experience and supplemental education equip them to direct welding activities and personnel, prepare and evaluate work plans, and review worker performance. Effective on-site certified welding supervisors provide one-to-one oversight, and can reduce costs by improving welder efficiencies and reducing welding-related waste.

Advanced certifications in welding engineering and welding education provide management level welding expertise to every welding work site and construction project.